Mass trapping and bait station techniques as alternative methods for IPM of "Ceratitis capitata" Wiedmann (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus orchards
Malathion bait sprays to control medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Tunisian citrus orchards is expected to be phased out in the near future due to low residue tolerance inthe fruits by consumers. Attract and kill strategy that encompasses mass trapping and bait station techniques has become awidespread method for controlling medfly. Effectiveness of two bait station methods (AAL&K® and Ceranock®) and two attractants for mass trapping (Ceratrap® and Starce®) was, respectively, compared with malathion and spinosad in Grombalia and Chott-Mariem experimental sites. Ceranock® and AAL&K® provide effective protection of citrus fruits from medfly attack as confirmed by low rate of damaged fruits of respectively 3.88 and 2.26% compared with malathion (21.63%). Medfly population and rate of fruit damage were significantly lower in Ceratrap® than in Starce® and spinosad treated plots. Rate of fruit damage on Starce® treated plots increased at least three times more than in Ceratrap®, and one-and-half times more than in spinosad treated plots. Ceranock® and AAL&K® bait station devices are a coste ffective alternative to the use of insecticides in citrus orchards and can be used in IPM schemes against medfly in association with other environmentally friendly approaches.